Hackeando al Gran Hermano Big Data: de la biometría a la intra-acción
En el año 2015 Big Data, el procesamiento sofisticado de bases de datos infinitas, avanza una nueva era de control y vigilancia ubicuos que atraviesan todos los estratos real y virtual de la materia, los órganos y los afectos, la configuración de una nueva economía, una nueva ontología y una nueva la política cuyas consecuencias deben explicarse.
En este escenario la biometría, entendida como la reducción de los cuerpos, movimientos y afectos a parámetros medibles, adquiere dimensiones sin precedentes, aunque cuenta con una larga historia de biologización de organismos, especies, géneros y razas que se puede trazar al menos desde el siglo XVIII, un momento identificado por Foucault como el nacimiento de la biopolítica.
En la década de 1870, con los comienzos de la fotografía y especialmente el cine, los estudios de la naturaleza, la teoría de la evolución, la eugenesia, la psicología, la antropología y otras ciencias, se produjo un punto de inflexión en los procesos biométricos. Implicó la medición-recopilación, la interpretación y la normalización de gestos y emociones, y su difusión masiva. También supuso el establecimiento de la creencia de que los resultados (“datos”) representan incuestionablemente lo que decían medir a través de medios técnicos y asépticos, y que las emociones leídas en ciertos gestos-movimientos eran universales.
Un nuevo punto de inflexión se produjo con el nacimiento de la información a mediados del siglo XX y con la aparición de la informática ubicua, la informática móvil y la informática en nube en el siglo XXI. Estos “datos”, cuyo objetivo es representarnos en realidad, terminan siendo incorporados en nosotros y constituyéndonos, con exclusión de todo lo que se elimina en el proceso de su creación, y por lo tanto creando nuevos comportamientos que a su vez refuerzan las teorías biométricas.
Este escenario exige nuevas ontologías, historias y políticas que generen nuevos modos de hackear el Big Data, para lo que resulta de vital importancia entender los datos, la forma en que se producen, lo que dejan fuera. Es esencial analizar los orígenes y los cambios de la biometría, sus prácticas, herramientas, performatividad, el papel de los aparatos biométricos en la generación de las identidades de los científicos, las interpretaciones que intervienen en la comprensión de sus resultados y la conversión gradual de éstos en “datos ” desencarnados, junto con las implicaciones sociales y culturales por las cuales lo que las mediciones dejaron al margen fue y es categorizado como irrelevante o anormal.
¿Es todo realidad discreta, discontinua y en bloques, o se hace discreta mediante procesos perceptivos, epistemológicos y ontológicos muy precisos? ¿Se reduce la política a operar dentro del Big Data, visualizando lo que es todavía no está representado, o podemos movilizar una política de desvisualización por la que llegar a ser ilegibles para el Hermano Big Data?
En este escenario el paradigma de la intra-acción, según lo propuso Karen Barad, apunta a una ontología relacional de realismo agencial en el que las agencias, en vez de las entidades, se co-constituyen en procesos emergentes. La intra-acción como una modalidad de performatividad posthumana que atraviesa todas las escalas de la materia y de producción de significado, puede proporcionar una base creativa para escapar de la biometría a la vez que para reinventarnos trascendiéndola, ya que cuestiona potencialmente la misma ontología de datos, cuerpos y el espacio-tiempo como elementos dados y medibles.
Propondremos desarrollar el paradigma de la intra-acción en redefiniciones de movimiento, cuerpos, espacio-tiempo, afectos y deseos: ¿Cómo construir una arquitectura intra-activa para una política ontológica capaz de responder a los nuevos retos del Hermano Big Data, para la ecología social por venir?
- Ontología y la historia de Big Data
- Ontología y la historia de los datos
- Ontología y la historia de Biometría
- Anti-biometría y error biométrico
- Hackeo biométrico y del Big Data
- Performatividad posthumana
- Extrañeza Posthumana (Posthuman queerness)
- Realismo agencial
- Arquitectura Intra-activa
- Biometría, Big Data y ecología
Ponencia magistrak: Karen Barad
Jaime del Val – Reverso
Eva Botella Ordinas – Depto. Historia Moderna, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
21 Julio 10’00-14’00
- 10’00-10’15 Bienvenida: Propuestas para discusiones en grupos al final de cada sesión y traer posteriormente conclusiones y preguntas sobre los intereses y temas comunes.
- 10’15-10’30 Kevin LaGrandeur – Ciberseguridad y el humano digitalizado.
- 10’30-10’45 Jaime del Val Ontología del Big Data – hacia una tecnoética de lo indeterminado.
- 10’50-11’50 Karen Barad – Keynote
- 12’00-12’15 Yvonne Förster Desapareciendo en el vacío – Cuerpos vs. datos.
- 12’15-12’30 Stefan Lorenz Sorgner Bioprivacidad y Big Data genéticos.
- 12´30-14 :00 Intra-acciones: discusiones entre ponentes y audiencia en grupos.
Temas propuestos: intra-acción, BigData, embodiment, etc. (temas pueden ser propuestos por los ponentes)
21 Julio 16’00-19’00
- 16’00-16’15 Eva Botella Civilizando la biometría.
- 16’15-16’30 Beatriz Pichel Biometría y la performatividad de la fotografía.
- 16’30-16’45 Federica Frabetti Materialidad y corporeidad en la era del Big Data.
- 17’45-18’00 Isabel Valverde El Reverso de la descorporeización del dato: performatividad posthumana en Sense Places, proyecto colaborativo en curso de danza y soma-tech.
- 18’15-19’00 Intra-acciones: discusiones entre ponentes y audiencia en grupos.
Temas propuestos: intra-ación, BigData, embodiment, etc. (temas pueden ser propuestos por los ponentes).
- 19’30-20’30 – AL AIRE LIBRE – Disalignments-Clinamen metaformance – comportamientos ilegibles en el espacio urbano– Hackers de afectos en la era del Big data.
- 21’00 – Cena
22 Julio 10’00 a 14’00
- 10’00-10’15 Adrian Freed Inducción de intra-acción para intermedia y cibernética metacorporal.
- 10’15-10’30 Peggy Reynolds Visualizando una ontología posthumana.
- 10’30-10’45 Eleanor Freed Intra-acción performativa – el tiempo desde dentro.
- 10’45-11’00 Shu Lea Cheang Saliendo de la superautovía – entra en la BioNet.
- 11’15-12’15 Intra-acciones : discusiones entre ponentes y audiencia en grupos.
Temas propuestos: intra-ación, BigData, embodiment, etc. (temas pueden ser propuestos por los ponentes).
- 12´15-14´00 Debate final – Intra-acción y la nueva política, hacia el Libro Blanco de Tecnoética de Metabody.
Kevin LaGrandeur – NYIT
Cybersecurity and the Digitized Human
Some of my colleagues at NYIT and I are investigating ways to collaborate on the ethical dimensions of projects that are already under way at our school. The first is a project funded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA); this project is developing an alternative to password-based methods of validating the identity of computer users. The project, entitled “Investigating Cognitive Rhythms as a New Modality for Continuous Authentication” uses the unique, rhythmic movements users make with their smart devices to identify them. The aim is to develop a scientific method free of human error to prove the identities of computer users. Their findings could be used to validate user identities for government computer systems and eventually be adopted by the commercial sector. The other government-sponsored project is a cybersecurity project that uses decoy files to detect intruders on an internet system; when an intruder is detected, they may be punished in various ways. This work is relevant to Metabody in two ways: the first project above uses body movements and rhythms to identify users; this is relevant because it is a codifying and data-encoding of what otherwise would be spontaneous human movement. What, I ask, are the ramifications of this? The second project also depends on codification of human behavior: that is, how they behave on a network, how they move about when they are within it. Both types of movement—the first literal and the second virtual—are being codified, stratified, and have very probable consequences of intrusiveness into users’ privacy, as well as possibly homogenizing effects on their humanity, an eventuality of central concern to Metabody. I am being called on by them to investigate the ethical dimensions of this. My talk will present the details of all of what I have just outlined above.
Jaime del Val
Big Data Ontology – Towards a Tecnoethics of Indeterminacy
Big data understood as Metabody, as material flow of codes that involves the moving bodies of people connected to an interface, implies de segmentation and capture of continuous movements of human and nonhuman bodies at every scale, its recodification and feedback, modulating behaviour patterns and capitalizing any affect or interaction that is reducible to data. Big Data crosses a new ontological threshold initiated with the birth of information, in a long tradition of biologization of the body and state racism (biometrics) and of formalization of perception (back to euclidean Geometry and Renaissance perspective). If in disciplinary societies one can still trace a platonic ontology of immobile an totalizing forms, with information power takes a radical aristotelian turn to dynamic form production. Big Data radicalizes this new ontology even further. I will argue that current politics, social movements, legal ontologies, attempts of regulation, ethical discourses and so forth are deeply obsolete with regard to this new paradigm. This issue of unprecedented global dimensions, which implies a radical change in the human, the social, and power, demands new kinds of critical engagement and new modes of politics. I will introduce the Big Data Brother subproject of Metabody and propose some frames for the future Tecnoethics White Book that Metabody aims to produce.
Stefan Lorenz Sorgner – Erfurt
Bioprivacy and Big Gene Data
Many people in the USA, Ireland and Island in particular give away their tissue samples for having their genes analysed. In this way, many of them wish to find out more about their personal pedigrees. Thereby, they can also get more information about their capacities in specific fields, the likelihood of getting a specific disease, and their responsiveness to many pharmacological treatments. By storing the data, the associated information permanently becomes more reliable and hence useful for the individual. Thereby, the interest of insurance companies and potential future employers also increases in getting access to this information. Furthermore, it needs to be considered that given today’s capacities of hackers, any digital information might have to be analysed as publicly available already. Given this development, bioprivacy, the privacy of one’s own biometrical data, is being given up. The consequences for our insurance system, the future of employment and how the government will deal with our biometrical data will be enormous. The consequences will be even more dramatic, if someone was able to access one’s genetic data, one’s digital traces in the net and combine them with the information collected by means of big data. In my presentation, I will explain central facets of this development and stress the relevance of specific cultural achievement which should not be given up all too easily.
Federica Frabetti – Oxford Brookes University
Materiality and embodiment in the age of big data
The rise of cloud computing, of Big Datafication, and of new forms of algorithmic control is changing the way in which we perceive and interact with the world and with others, and it is possibly leading to the death of politics – or so it is widely claimed. At the same time, the social sciences and the humanities see the emergence of new techniques based on data mining, cultural analytics and data visualization as an opportunity for a change of paradigm as well as the death of ‘humanism’ and possibly of theory. In this paper I want to ask in whether and in what way these new technologies entail both the end of politics and of theory as we know them. I will look at these questions through an analysis of the forms of (dis)embodiment and materiality entailed by datafication and I will explore the possibility of a critical and politically meaningful approach to big data.
Beatriz Pichel – Wellcome Trust Fellow in Medical Humanities – PHRC, de Montfort University
Biometrics and the performativity of photography
In the last years, much attention has been paid to the emergence of biometrics, and the use of photography by leading figures such as Etienne Jules Marey, Alphonse Bertillon, Francis Galton, Eadweard Muybridge and Albert Londe. Scholars have usually interpreted their inputs as visual data. Consequently, they have focused on the images, and have interpreted them at the light of the ideal of mechanical objectivity and its related values.
While photographic images had a considerable scientific weight, these photographic projects cannot be reduced to them. The analysis of photographic practices alongside the scientific discourses reveals that as important as the final images were the procedures through which the photographs were taken. In some cases, it was precisely the procedure, rather than the image, what had scientific value.
This presentation proposes a theoretical shift in the study of these photographic projects. Following feminist and science studies, as well as new research in photographic history, this paper examines the performativity of photography. In this regard, it does not consider biometrical results as visual representations of certain measures. Rather, it explores how these measures and the related results were the product of the conjunction of performances, technologies and images.
The aim of this research is to reflect on how new perspectives of nineteenth-century biometrics allow a better understanding of contemporary practices. Particularly, its purpose is to redefine problems of big data associated with the online exchange and publication of photographs in social networks. Should we understand these as merely visual data? Or rather as performative material practices that go beyond the image?
Eva Botella-Ordinas – Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
During the second half of the nineteenth century the development of human and animal comparative psychology and criminology went hand in hand with the fixation of species and genera, and, at the same, with blurring frontiers between them in the long term. The standard of civilization and social control were at the base of these disciplines and affected both the conception of international order and scientific research. It is a strongly biometric moment: data collection, employment of new machines and techniques, centrality of the brain in explaining individual and group behavior; a moment of gestural and kinetic definition, we believe, is inseparable from the social canons in which these studies were based and built. Comparative psychology and natural sciences, especially in the study of the “social species” (insects and humans), through the materials used remarkable scientists of the time, such as Galton, Darwin, Forel, Evans, Lombroso, is the main focus of this case study . Nowadays research on so called “complex systems” ants and neural systems are compared, and the comparison remains essential for the concept of “emergence”. We would like to open the question for discussion about the role of “data” in these processes and in research.
Yvonne Förster, Leuphana University Lüneburg
Vanishing in the Void – Bodies vs. Data
In my short paper I will echo some tendencies in the current debate on big data, standardization and alternative conceptions of (post-)human entanglements with the digital. My aim is to reflect on the debate. I will not present another theory. At this point it seems important to see what is at stake and how conceptualization works.
„Existence is not an individual affair.“ (Karen Barad 2007, Meeting the Universe Halfway, IX)
This is what we would subscribe to at least since phenomenology started emphasize the role of the other in constituting a self or the relation o subject and object. It has been the starting point for theories on relational ontologies. What is there are not entities, sets of categories or substances. Ontology has become a theory of entanglements. In the course of this theorization bodies became constructs, selfs dissolved into narratives or neurological fireworks and physical entities may consist of quantum states.
The tendency to dissolve or deconstruct standing categories is a form of critique characteristic for postmodernity, posthumanism and postcolonial studies. One object of dissolution is the body. The concept of the body in theory be it philosophy or empirical science has been extremly ambivalent. From the perspective of postmodern thought, the body is a means to an end, namely standardization, normalization and discrimination. This is what leads to diverse attempts of dissolving this category into other, relational and not naturalistic concepts like movement (Massumi, Manning) or agency (Barad). There bodies play no essential role anymore, which leads to a very abstract way of thinking about bodypolitics. My aim is to show, that big data also tends to open a field of images relevant to our cultural self-understanding that dissolves the concept of the body in a very similar way like its critics. I will call that move of disembodiment into question and suggest a concept of embodiment that can mediate between experience (relevant to constitute new ways of inter/intra-action) and critical theory. I will try to draw some lines to Frederica Frabetti’s concept of software as embodied memory to show how embodiment can be thought of as an essentially open concept.
Adrian Freed – CNMAT – UC Berkeley
Entrainment Accounts of Intra-action for Intermedia and Metabody Cybernetics
This paper explores various formulations of the concept of entrainment as a way to model and operationalize intra-actions in intermedia performance practice. Data (Big or otherwise) in these formulations are subjugated to disposable utterances that serve an accounting role analogous to the roles energy, action, momentum serve in physics.
An important strength of entrainment is that it requires neither telos, a stable presupposition of an arrow of time, nor causality – and yet these elements often enter our accounts and tools of intra-action. I erect exemplary fences against these accounts by adducing common biases that produce them, the anthroposonsorialcentrisms that include: language-induced causality, binarisms and active-systems.
The paper concludes with a series of case studies that show the plasticity of entrainment in describing movement in a transdisciplinary way. These will include a state-free, non-causal description of hysteresis in cybernetic electronics and the nested coupled loops of an intermedia dance and music work encompassing signal flows, ontogenesis of gestures, and emergent production of microsociological space.
Dr. Peggy E. Reynolds – New York
Visualizing a Posthuman Ontology
The turn toward affect as a means by which better to model entities and their relationships is indicative of a larger trend toward a posthuman re-theorization of the object and its boundaries. From speculative realists to social geographers, cultural anthropologists to theoretical physicists, disentangling the feedback loops which instantiate our objects of study has taken on a new urgency. This is driven, in part, by the need to keep pace with the increasing fluidity of objects/entities as made possible by the computational revolution. Developments such as remote sensing, high frequency trading, social media and virtual reality foreground the ephemerality of the object/entity but also the role played by reflexivity and amplification in its stabilization. What becomes clear in the digital age is that dichotomizing strategies and analyses of linear causal chains (philosophical arguments forged largely during the Enlightenment era) no longer help orient the observer as there is no longer an outside to the objective frame. Euclidian-inflected understandings of the relationship of insides to outsides, large to small, simple to complex are beginning to be reconceptualized in the terms, images and geometries provided by the computational revolution itself – rhizomatic fractal structures with no internal parts; quantum field experiments complicating divisions between apparatus and subject; user-generated content created and consumed ouroboros-style. What does afford some stability in this otherwise involuted, non-linear environment, is the recognition of the importance of scale and how its relative nature might be wielded as an analytic tool, an investigation I will undertake in this talk.
Keywords: posthumanism, scale, boundaries, intra-action
Eleanor Freed – Berkeley
Performative Intra-action. Time from the Inside
Time travel is a favorite subject of Sci-fi fantasy movies, a medium which itself is time locked. My experience of the world does not include an interaction with time but rather an intra-action. In other words, I make time as I go whilst engaging my selfness in relations that form from a togetherness in space. Bodies are useful tools for this art form yet not necessary for it. What is created when time is used as an art medium rather than a constraining force of form is expressions of emotion and togetherness and co-creationness that has a life rather than a form, a life of it’s own so to speek. The traces of collective choreographic creation experience, for example exist not only in forms that are videographable and viewable by also within the souls and spirits and bodies of those present in the making co-creation. Such presence is more powerful than time and thereby displaces its dominance. Data collection, tracking, monitoring and ascribing is likewise disabled. Jaime and I adventured in this territory in his U.C. Berkeley Dance workshop. There were fingertip LED fascilitators, spring-loaded net bounded tent-alikes, a wall screen lightshow in dark room with multiple bodies exploring the space. We danced together in no time.
Shu Lea Cheang – Paris
Exit the Superhighway, Enter the BioNet
We are infected. We are the virus. We enter the BioNet.
By year 2060, The Net as we know it has crashed. The Genom Corp. who established itself as Net Porn empire and profited from collected human orgasm data in the late XXth century, takes human body hostage to initiate BioNet, a network made up of micro-computing red blood cells (erythrocytes) programmed to re-condition our sexual desires. This is the brand new Liquid Future in which farmlands are left barren; bodies infused with synthetic liquid food; hackers encrypt with pissing codes, branded tattoo launches channels of communication; biometric scanners embedded in palms; altered databody claims fluid genders. We learn to love the virus. We are the virus, mutated replicated mobilized, we enter the BioNet to sabotage the big daddy within and reclaim stolen orgasm data.
Isabel Valverde and Todd Cochrane
Reversing data disembodiment: Posthuman performativity within Senses Places collaborative soma-tech dance ongoing project
How is the notion of “posthuman embodiment”, proposed by K.Hayles, and the subsequent posthuman corporealities, by myself, taken upon and developing this notion by focusing on intermedia dance and performance artwork processes and theories, towards constituting an alternative critical and hacking approach to the “big data” reduction and instrumentalization of embodied information?
This paper wishes to take the collaborative dance-tech project Senses Places as an example of such alternative approaches, particularly in the way it develops different ways of interfacing, including hacking software and the capture-processing-outputting of different body signals (biometrics) and movement information in terms of changes, towards opening news perceptive channels to learn about ourselves, and how we can communicate with others and the environment. By creating local-global inter-subjective and subject-environment embodied interfaces, through which “data” circulates between collaborators and visiting participants, we are re-shaping big into small, and making of it new modes of perceiving this exchanged info. This contrasts the questionable tendency of control and surveillance targeting and consolidating consumer culture, thus reversing this tendency towards an agency of our very bodies intra and inter perceiving actions that will contribute to balance the disparity of senses and perceptions, bringing kinesthesis and overall somatics into a challenging posthuman performative play.